Case study of relational database management system

Presently, information systems and relational database systems are being embraced in every part of the business world but not withstanding this research claims that the pitfalls and doom of the airline industry cannot be avoided if these systems are increasingly relied upon and if the correct understanding of the uses of these systems and how they work are overlooked [ 16 ]. To investigate the unique role played by information systems and relational database management systems on the performance of British Airways.

To investigate whether information system play a significant role in the performance of the airline industry. To identify the relationship between relational database management system and the airline industry. To identify the major challenges associated with the implementation of information systems and relational database management systems. To investigate the risk involved with an increased need for information systems and relational database management systems. Oz states that information is data which have been processed in order for them to become meaningful.

This is an essential process which is used to obtain information that includes the collection of data and the subjection of the data collected to a transformation process in order for information to be created. Laudon [ 11 ] states that systems are the gathering of several components which work together to achieve similar goals such goals are to accepts inputs and change these inputs into outputs. These systems have many other systems incorporated in them which have sub goals but not all systems have many goals, some have just a single goal they need to achieve.

Bociji suggests that information systems aims at providing information to organizations which will help them in making swift and accurate decisions to ensure that the organisation is kept under control [ 17 ].

Case Studies in Six-Step Relational Database Design - Case Study 1

These information systems have various types that an organization can make use of such as the open and closed loop control systems [ 18 ]. The open- loop control system, has no way to guarantee that the objectives for a process are being fulfilled which means when used in a complex organisational environment they will not be suitable while the closed — loop control system have two category of control mechanism known as feed forward which puts in prediction element inside the loop of the feedback control and feedback control which makes a way for a system to be put under control [ 19 ].

Even the governments also make use of information systems in order to supply affordable services to their citizens by delivering various digital goods, of a kind like electronic books for public libraries and online services of a kind like auctioning of goods and social networking while people are reliant on information systems through connecting with the internet such as shopping, social media, banking and entertainment [ 20 ]. Information systems have several types that can be used in an organisation.

These types are used in several organisational levels so that different persons perform several individual task, by so doing the work is not overload for a particular department as information as well as the work is shared evenly among workers such as the strategic level which are for the senior workers in an organisation to enable them make long term decisions that can make or break the organisation such as the location the company should open a new branch.

The management level which are for the middle managers which make decisions such as employing and sacking of staffs, the knowledge level which are for the knowledge and data workers whom are the major workers in an organisation because they bring ideas and experience into moving the organization forward.

The operational level is for the operational managers who are on the lowest level in the organisation.

They make day-to-day decisions in an organisation such as customer service and an example is a teacher [ 9 ]. The Figure 1 is showing the various types of information systems in their different organizational levels in an organization. Relational databases are one of the most relevant most relevant and precedential technologies being used in most of all the real world applications at various organisations today because relational databases are computer system software tool that are used for maintaining, updating and retrieving company records [ 21 ].

But that there are few problems associated with relying on these relational databases such as data redundancy due to the fact that there is irregularity in its data frequency since the only way for connection between tables is through the foreign key and these redundant data causes the database to become abnormal while null values may fill up the whole database.

Also, Demba [ 22 ] suggests that for these redundancies to be reduced in a relational database system, an algorithm known as the minimal cover can be introduced by computing the closure of a given set of attributes after which the redundant attributes can be removed. An illustration of this minimal cover is presented below. After which, R is said to satisfy the functional dependency of X [ 22 ].

Henceforth, every functional dependency is supposed to be in canonical form. Basically, information systems play a very important and supportive role in most sectors of the airline industry [ 23 ]. The impact of information systems on the performance of airline industry and the relationship between its productivity and performance is of substantial interest to many researchers and research [ 24 ]. A monumental number of researches have been related with the performance of the airline industry beginning with Bygstad , which contains the model technology acceptance.

Relational Database Management System

And also, DeLone and McLean [ 25 ] spotted several factors for the positive result of information systems such as information quality, system quality, system use, individual impact, user satisfaction, and organizational impact. After this has been done, In Seddon [ 26 ] in his addition to the work of DeLone and McLean [ 25 ] recommenced their factors and included other success factors. The airline industry has inputted a great investments in information systems recently, but despite of all this, the effectiveness of information systems performance has proved exceedingly difficult and this impact is having many sides and is including various aspects such as the work and tasks of the staffs in the airline industry tasks and other aspects that will be discussed in Clarke [ 27 ].

Dawson [ 28 ] studied the impact between information systems and the airline industry by investigating the performance on different factors such as system quality, the use of information system and information quality and performance. Some primary data was collected from the staffs in the airline and it was concluded that the factors mentioned earlier was affecting the airline industry positively with evidence which implied that the satisfaction of the airline industry customers is a very important factor that influence the use of information system [ 29 ].

Several other researchers have ventured to understand these factors more deeply by identifying their impact on the airline industry performance in a more accurate way.

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Wierschem and Brodnax [ 30 ] discovered the impact of improving treatment of computers processors speed on the productivity of the airline industry for customer satisfaction. This was a well monitored laboratory experiment which was organized to evaluate the impact of the processor speed on the output of the airline industry customers. From the results achieved from the experiment, it was discovered that the productivity of the airline industry towards their customer, as evaluated by an elevation in the volume of work has improved drastically [ 31 ]. From all the great research findings from various scholars as stated above, they have been able to establish various important conclusions on some unquestionable factors and their reciprocal actions that influenced the performance of the airline industry such as system quality and the use of the system have ameliorated the earlier models and have improved more comprehensive models.

Stream Processing in a Relational Database: a Case Study - IEEE Conference Publication

It has also orchestrated new empirical investigations on the impact of information systems on the airline industry performance [ 32 ]. The drawback was that most airline industries carriers began to reduce their fares in order to keep former customers as well as attract new ones which lead to a price warfare among the airline industry putting a number of small airline industry carriers across the globe out of business [ 28 ].

This made the British Airways airline industry think of a better way of becoming more cost effective and efficient so as to stay with the competition and in turn be the best. Nevertheless, the introduction of information systems into the British Airways airline industry has really facilitated the aim of making travelling via air more affordable to their customers of modest means as customers who book for ticket via a website save a lot of cost.

As of now, British Airways travellers have saved over 6 billion pounds on fares annually after the incorporation of information systems [ 22 ].


Information systems which are developed and then supplied by information systems professional vendors are usually very expensive. An expensive system will therefore increase the start-up cost of a new entrant. Unlike computer reservation systems, which are expensive as well but can be shared amongst airline industry partners in order to reduce cost and to protect their market which is already in existence and to obtain new market share [ 33 ].

Nevertheless, the strategic advantage which an information system provides will make an airline industry feel reluctant to share with other airline carriers in order to reduce costs because the British Airways airline industry makes use of information systems in order to enable them make their market share stronger and integrating alongside with their distribution channels and travel agents. Information systems also provide fares on time and information for available seats to various destinations as well as imposing an entry barrier to various potential entrants [ 34 ].

Database case study examples

Information systems grants the British Airways airline passengers more bargaining power by offering them with more and better choices and also by meeting up to their expectations with the expected price. It provides customers with better product since they are getting the same product as well as the same service for lower prices. Information systems aids the airline industry regain control from the customer reservation systems and travel agents by forcing them to trade airline seats as specified by the airline accordingly and adjusts interface with the customer reservation systems and travel agents [ 35 ]. Information systems can also assist with the upkeep of customer reservation systems and travel agents switching cost by eliminating the manipulation of airline fares that are usually done by travel agents in order to prevent spoiling the image of British Airways [ 36 ].

One of the functions of information systems is that it automatically shows the empty seats at lower prices to those individuals who would otherwise not travel. This is particularly true for those leisure travellers who are very price sensitive. This is called a win-win case for the airline industry and their customers because it makes the airline products as well as services more competitive to others such as ship and rail [ 37 ].

Information systems that are used within the airline industry will drastically reduce the bargaining power of aircraft suppliers because with the of information systems the airline industry are having a better understand of the situation in the market and their customer demand in terms of the best optimal compartment size and the capacity of the airline seat that can be easily illustrated to customers during ticket sales due to the fact that the airline industry will be able to state and negotiate the aircraft configuration requirements instead of the predefined aircraft configuration requirements that are administered by the aircraft manufacturers [ 25 ].

The possession of information systems will make the airline industry more cost effective over its competitors by constructing timely and accurate pricing updates and decisions of its entire itinerary in the operating network according to the situation of the market. Information systems will provide decision support to the airline industry in order to manage more routes with less route controllers. Information systems brings about cost effectiveness and efficiency in the airline industry when used effectively and it can rapidly change the basis of competition by matching the competitors closely with the aim of further undercutting in order to compete for routings that has a weak demand [ 38 ].

In order for a geographically diverse business to be profitably and effectively managed is determined by a stern yet resilient control and tracking of all collective data streams. Also, it is very essential to use the latest database technology to provide immediate access to information which are continuously updated, securely stored and on hardware that are high-performance and reliable.

In order to attain such heights, the British Airways airline industry perpetuates a complex series of databases that runs on a diversity of interconnected and many times on interdependent database systems [ 6 ]. These database systems are mostly controlled from the British Airways two major data centres located at Heathrow Airport in London, United Kingdom. These two data centres focus on the maintenance the DB2 and IMS databases, which are the key database in the British Airways airline industry. The DB2 is a type of relational database management system whose key strategy is to handle large application databases all over the world [ 6 ].

DB2 was introduced as the principal means to amalgamate the benefits of relational databases and fast transaction processing in order to provide a platform on which the British Airways airline industry can develop the organizations various intensive data business systems [ 7 ]. In the past, the British Airways airline industry has developed several types of DB2 applications but the performance and availability of the database systems in regards to the services that was provided to the customers of the British Airways airline industry was not meeting up to standard and still needed some improvements so it was basically improved by the replacement of the standard IBM utilities with a particular purpose built tool [ 22 ].

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This change created a faster throughput of interpretative processing functions across all of the organizations production systems, it helped in minimizing planned and unplanned downtime and made the organizations data recovery faster and more reliable [ 39 ]. The British Airways was able to achieve this goal by sorting suppliers with the ability to become a service partner to the organization which will be of a great benefit to both parties, giving the British Airways airline industry a continuous flow of access and supply to many new technologies at the development stage and also it will provide the supplier with an assured and a long term contract.

British Airways has a lot of experience with the relational database management system because the organization used the relational database management system to lessen the time taken to attach new terminals to the British Airways IMS system [ 38 ]. The relational databases is a vital factor in a fast changing marketplace because the airline industry uses it to connect to new customers as well as relocating already existing staff or customers as fast as possible when necessary [ 33 ].