What is more, people have become more vulnerable to extreme weather and climate changes that lead to serious mental health issues. The sea-level rise accelerates 0. This trend will continue if gas emissions remain unchecked. People are to blame for rapidly melting ice, warming oceans, and rising sea levels. Coral reefs are in danger as the ocean warms.
Two-thirds of the Great Barrier Reef has been damaged as a result of climate change. Global warming increases the acidity of seawater because of the increase of the levels of CO2. The ocean is 26 percent more acidic than before the Industrial revolution. Melting glaciers endanger human life on the coastal areas. It can cause landslides and other land collapses. Increase in average temperatures is the major problem caused by global warming.
The average global temperature has increased by about 1. Such temperatures turn our environment into a breeding ground for infections and diseases. The worst thing is that increased dryness and greenhouse gases serve as natural fuels for wildfires.
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Scientists have predicted the effects for the future based on the climate changes due to the global warming problem. Snow cover is projected to contract. Sea ice is projected to shrink in both Antarctic and Arctic. Future tropical cyclones will become more intense. Heavy precipitation events, heat waves, and hot extremes will become more frequent.
Arctic late-summer sea ice can disappear by the end of the 21 st century. Sea level rise and anthropogenic warming will continue for centuries. People should cut power consumption in order to reduce the effects of global warming. We should buy less polluting cars, get more efficient refrigeration, and reduce water heating requirements. We should also fly less or not at all.
Such measures will definitely influence modern society a lot.
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However, it is important for every person to do something to prolong life on earth. Just think, there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today than at any point in the last , years. Air quality is affected greatly by the global warming. The air pollution caused by overabundance of carbon dioxide, vehicular emissions, and power plants influences the human respiratory system.
A lot of people all over the world suffer from respiratory diseases. The surface of our planet can warm by 6 degrees this century. Information that will make your essay even more interesting and catching The Arctic is one of the worst places affected by global warming. More than 1 million species have become extinct due to the effects of global warming. The Montana Glacier national Park has only 25 glaciers instead of that were there in the year Human activities release around 37 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. Severe natural disasters caused by global warming have left millions of people impoverished and homeless.
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Please enter a valid phone number. Please enter a valid email address. Financial Incentives from Government To encourage development in the Amazon, the Brazilian government made rural credit available to those with a land title or a certificate of occupancy at low, indeed at negative, interest rates.
The credits were so attractive that money flowed from the nonagricultural sector into extensive ranching Binswanger, Small farms were not taxed on land, large ones could reduce their already low taxes by converting forest to pasture or crops Binswanger, , and corporations could deduct up to 75 percent of the cost of approved development projects in the Amazon from their federal tax liability Browder, Corporations could also write off losses on Area-.
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These incentives favored extensive enterprises and encourage livestock production even when returns from beef alone did not pay the cost of production. Fiscal incentives for livestock raising have largely dried up since , but the cattle population has continued to grow at an annual rate of 8 percent Schneider, , suggesting that profit can now be made without subsidies, partly from the appreciation of land values Binswanger, Livestock and Crop Economics The strategy that is generally most immediately profitable when land is plentiful and labor scarce is one of extensive and often transitory use.
An example is shifting cultivation, the predominant indigenous strategy of land use. Fire removes cut brush and trees, and there is no need to turn the soil, weed frequently, irrigate, drain, or terrace. Beef production demands even less work per unit output and, with the help of modern technology and fossil-fuel energy for clearing forests, can be much more extensive than shifting cultivation.
Causes of climate change
Fattening cattle on grass requires little labor or expenditure on fencing and corrals, and no weeding. Ranchers can take advantage of the highly productive first years after forest clearance to overstock the range and increase short-term profit. Such ranches, established with government subsidies, are now able to survive without them by marketing more timber from the land, selling beef to recent migrants to the new urban centers in the region, walking their cattle to market, and using new and better-adapted grass species and selectively bred cattle Schneider, Ideology, Politics, and Economics of Development Throughout much of the s and s, the Brazilian government with support from international financial institutions pursued a strategy of large-scale, capital-intensive development projects.
These often meant monocropping, relatively low labor inputs, mechanization, and the maximization of short-term financial returns. The strategy, elaborated in textbooks on development e.
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The international debt incurred in part to promote such development increased demands for rapid returns, high profits, and the production of exports to pay the interest. Recently, disappointing economic returns, declining international aid, and an awareness of rapid ecological deterioration are becoming associated with changing priorities, and analysts in the World Bank and elsewhere are becoming critical of the old development philosophy Binswanger, ; Mahar, ; Schneider, However, the period witnessed stronger movements of population from the already settled hinterland to cities, combined with considerable natural increase in urban areas.
The decline in rural population density is reflected in the phrase, " Quando chega o boi, o homen sai, " When the cattle arrive, the men leave Browder, The extensive clearing of forest on the frontier reflects population pressure and food needs outside the local region, combined with a lack of population pressure locally Denevan, The Amazonian case illustrates the difference between intensive and extensive patterns of land use in tropical forests. Table provides a summary representation of the extremes of these patterns, presented as ideal types actual land use almost always has features of both types.
The Amazonian forest has long been inhabited by peoples that used a mixture of these strategies to support their economies. Indigenous groups combined relatively extensive strategies, such as temporary or shifting cultivation followed by natural forest regeneration and hunting and gathering of dispersed game, fish, and wild food plants, with more intensive farming of alluvial riverine and other soils of high, renewable fertility.
More recently, both native American Posey, ; Prance, and immigrant populations such as the rubber tappers have maintained the forest by a mixed-management strategy that mimics rather than replaces the biologically diverse natural environment Browder, The modern forms of land use most implicated in deforestation—cattle ranching, crop agriculture, and logging and other industrial uses—are extensive and rapidly expansive, market and capital dependent, specialized in one or a few commodities, and mechanized or labor saving.
Some observers point to modern strat-. High average yields, low variability, high diversity cereals, tubers, vegetables, trees, livestock. Low total inputs, seasonally variable, unskilled, high returns per hour, often hired. High total inputs, steady inputs throughout year, skilled, low returns per hour, often household. High, output sold, inputs largely purchased, national and international commodity markets.
Subsistence combined with cash production, not totally dependent on market prices, some purchased inputs. Private, land values speculative but initially low, legal access politically determined. Private and common property rights, land values high, inheritance important, legal protections.
They claim that intensive, stable agricultural land use with a mixture of crops and livestock can be combined with labor-intensive efforts to maintain soil quality by careful, thorough tillage, agroforestry, manuring, terracing, irrigation, and drainage. Thus they can provide high, reliable, sustainable production from smallholdings with high inputs of household labor and little capital or fossil fuel energy.
These systems may also help preserve mature forest ecosystems from destruction by reducing development pressure on them Anderson, The potential for a future of less-extensive forest use in the Amazon Basin relates in part to land distribution. Inequality of land holdings in Brazil has increased greatly over the last few decades, with 70 percent of Brazilian farmers now landless and 81 percent of the farmland held by just 4. This pattern of increasing inequality also holds in the Amazon, making access to resources more difficult for subsistence farmers and hunters and gatherers and threatening indigenous land tenure systems based on communal rights Chernela, n.
Larger landholdings bring more extensive use.
More intensive cultivation means that less forest must be displaced to meet human needs. Moreover, stable smallholders have an incentive to economize on land and keep it productive, so that land degradation can be slower with more intensive use. Thus, the current pattern of extensive development, by displacing indigenous peoples and small-scale extractors, has removed a brake on deforestation and threatens a store of valuable knowledge about the intensive management of forest species for human consumption.
There are barriers to a transition to a mixed-development strategy in the Amazon.