Review of related literature about cigarette smoking

Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. In the intervention stage, health education was given to the students of College of Education, Ilorin. Impact of intervention was assessed by re-assessing knowledge, attitude and practice of the students after intervention. Results: Pre- intervention, However fewer respondents in both groups 9.

About one quarter of the respondents in both groups had smoked cigarette at one time or the other. More than three quarters of smokers in both groups were males. The majority of the respondents learnt to smoke from their friends After the health education intervention statistically significant increase in awareness of health problems associated with cigarette smoking was found in the study group unlike the control group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that health education is effective in changing attitude to cigarette smoking.

It is recommended that continuous health education programmes on smoking should be organized by institutions, associations and societies within and outside the schools as this will make them well informed towards behavioural change. Tobacco is the most important preventable cause of premature death in many countries, and half of persistent smokers who start smoking in adolescence will die from the use of tobacco. In the developing world, tobacco poses a major challenge, not just to health, but also to social and economic development, and to environmental sustainability.

Geographical variation in the prevalence of cigarette smoking contributes to differences in the mortality patterns of smoking related diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease and coronary heart diseases. WHO is also concerned about increasing tobacco consumption in developing countries while its use is decreasing in developed countries. The costs of tobacco go far beyond the health consequences as it has a significant economic and social burden on families and societies. Studies have shown smoking prevalence between 3.

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The anti-smoking health education intervention programme among school children in the black townships of Guguleta and Lange near Cape town in South Africa has found out that the children confidence increased and their use of tobacco decreased compared with children at the control school. In Helsinki [ 17 ] and Romania adolescents such anti-smoking intervention has improved attitude and behaviour to smoking.

The survey is aimed at evaluating the effect of health education intervention on cigarette smoking as well as on knowledge of health hazards resulting from it among the study population. The Colleges of Education in Kwara State were purposively selected but randomly allocated as study and control Colleges. Oro is about 60 kilometers South of Ilorin.

Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

The study focused on the full-time students of the two Colleges of Education. Part-time and sand-witch students were excluded from the study. The students of the College of Education, Oro, Kwara State were used as the control group because of similarities in social, demographic, and cultural background to the intervention group. Permission for the study was obtained from the Deans Student Affairs and Registrars of the two Colleges.

A preliminary discussion with the students of the two Colleges through the Students Union Leaders and some Class Representatives was carried out. Meetings with the Executives of the Students Union to enhance cooperation and participation in the survey were held. Consent was sought before participation in the survey.

Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the study. In the first stage, a simple random sampling technique by balloting was adopted to select two schools out of five in each of the Colleges which served as the study and control groups.

Daily cigarette smoking among colombian high school students: gender related psychosocial factors

The list of students in the selected schools served as the sampling frame for the study and control groups. There were 1, students in the two selected schools in the intervention College and 1, students in the two selected schools in the control College. The respondents were identified by matriculation numbers, departments, levels of education and the number on the sampling frame for easy tracing.

Systematic random sampling was used to pick the respondents in the study and control groups. The respondents were picked systematically with sampling interval of 6 and 4 for the study and control groups respectively. Those that were not in the school were replaced by the next person in the sampling frame. In all, a total of students were recruited in each of the study and control groups, however, and subjects responded from the study and control groups respectively in the pre-intervention stage and they were followed up for evaluation.

However, and students responded in the post-intervention phase for the study and control groups respectively. There were three stages in the research viz: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention stages. The health education was given to the students of the College of Education, Ilorin. The health education focused on health hazards of cigarette smoking, factors influencing initiation of cigarette smoking, the strategies for quitting and ways of controlling cigarette smoking in the society.

The students of College of Education, Oro control group were given health education at the end of the study. Post-intervention stage was conducted using questionnaires containing the same questions as in the pre-intervention stage. The time interval between intervention and evaluation was six months. Data generated with the questionnaires were edited and validated manually for errors and entered in to the computer for analysis using Epi-info version software package on the computer.

Cross tabulation of variables was done and chi-square was used to determine the statistical significance of the differences in the pre- and post-intervention stage of the study where necessary. The mean age of respondents in the study group was Majority of the respondents were within age group. Other socio-demographic characteristics like marital status, sex distribution, religion, and academic level distribution were similar for both the study and control groups.

Pre-intervention, among the respondents in the study group In the study group, Thirty people In the control group, 35 Majority of respondents in both groups Few people 23 9. Also, few respondents 22 9. The knowledge of respondents in the study group on health problems associated with cigarette smoking increased after intervention. Among the respondents in the study group, 60 In the control group, 66 Pre intervention, majority of smokers in both groups had no intention of smoking cigarette in the future Among the respondents in the study group, 49 There was an observed reduction in the proportion of the study group currently smoking cigarette after the health education, from Among the control group there was a reduction of 0.

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Among the respondents who currently smoke cigarette, 24 About half of current smokers 25 Fourteen In the control group, 20 Twenty seven In the control group, 17 Fifteen Among the study group, 54 Family members who were cigarette smokers were the uncle 23 Similarly in the control group, 21 In both groups, there were more smokers [47 The Relative Risk RR of smoking if there is a relation smoking cigarette is Therefore, the chances of a child smoking increases many fold if members of the family smoke cigarette.

Most common reason mentioned by respondents in both groups for smoking cigarette was fun, pleasure and for relaxation Table 3. More than half of the study group 29 Recent Activity. Affiliations 1. Find all citations in this journal default. Or filter your current search. Abstract Tobacco consumption is the second major cause of death and the fourth most common risk factor for diseases, worldwide.

Epidemiologic studies have traced the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances among medical students and physicians. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and the related factors among the students of medical sciences in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

A standard self-administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic data, participant smoking status, family and peer smoking, attitudes and beliefs about smoking, awareness of cigarette negative effects and reasons for smoking cessation was used in the current study. Among the students, The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9. Effects of nicotine on gene expression and osseointegration in rats. Oral Implants Res ; Refractory periodontitis associated with abnormal Polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis and cigarette smoking. J Periodontol ; Norepinephrine and epinephrine release and androgenic mediation of smoking associated hemodynamic and metabolic events.

N Engl J Med ; Nicotine and its effects on wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg ; The effects of intra-arterial epinephrine and nicotine on gingival circulation. Comparison of leukocyte count and function in smoking and non-smoking young men. Infect Immun ; The effect of cigarette smoke on human oral polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Periodont Res ; Cigarette smoking inhibits prostacycline formation.

Lancet ; The detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on flap survival: An experimental study in the rat. Br J Plast Surg ; Effect of nicotine on the rate and strength of long bone fracture healing. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ; Impact of smoking on marginal bone loss.

The long-term efficacy of currently used dental implants: A review and proposed criteria of success. Success criteria in implant dentistry: A systematic review.

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J Dent Res ; Tissue integration of non-submerged implants. Implant success, survival, and failure: the international congress of oral implantologists ICOI Pisa consensus conference. Implant dentistry ; Short dental implants a systematic review. Bain CA. Smoking and implant failure-benefits of a smoking cessation protocol.